Rusting iron and the browning flesh of a green avocado both are though to have something in common with the uneven skin spots, creases and fine lines of our aging skin: oxidation.
While the juice of a lemon works to briefly stop an avocado or apple from turning brown, thanks to antioxidant vitamin C, there is a very different biological process than takes place when skin is exposed to sun and strict requisites for anti-oxidants to counter the natural aging process.
Right here we examine why antioxidants have however been taking leading billing in skin care and take note of a naturally occurring immune serum with crucial antioxidant enzymes for the skin.
How do anti-oxidants work?
Oxidation occurs throughout nature. When it comes to our skin, it is mostly activated by the production of free radicals at the cellular level when skin is exposed to radiation from ultraviolet light.
Radiation is energy produced from a source. Examples include heat or light from the sun, microwaves from an oven, X rays from an X-ray tube, and gamma rays from radioactive elements.
In fact it is indirect DNA damage that results in the formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen molecules.
The mechanics go something like this.
Radiation that lugs enough energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules when it connects with them ionizes or charges them.
Atoms in their typical state are electrically neutral because the total negative charge of electrons outside the nucleus equals the complete positive charge. They are not charged.
Charged or "ionizing radiation" are unpredictable atoms that have an unpaired electron in their outermost shell, virtually like a knife without a sheath and can produce a number of physiological effects, such as those associated with mutation or cancer, which non-ionizing radiation can not.
The complete spectrum of ultraviolet radiation has some of the biological features of ionizing radiation: it does far more damage to numerous molecules in biological systems than is accounted for by the simple heating impacts seen in sunburn. These properties stem from the ultraviolet photon's power to modify chemical bonds in molecules, even without having enough energy to ionize atoms.
DNA has photochemical properties that prevent damage from the majority of but a tiny portion of the absorbed UV-photon elementary particles and changes more than 99.9 % of the photons into harmless heat. The damage from the < 0.1% of the photons is still enough to cause sunburn and other deleterious effects.
While the human body reacts to direct DNA damages with a painful warning signal, no such warning signal is generated from indirect DNA damage.
Indirect DNA damage occurs when a UV-photon is absorbed in the human skin by a "chromophore", a part of a molecule responsible for its color. This occurs when the color agent is not functional because it lacks the ability to quickly convert the energy into harmless heat.
Molecules that do not have this ability have a long-lived excited state. This long lifetime leads to a high probability for bimolecular reactions with other molecules.
Bimolecular reactions can occur either between the excited chromophore and DNA, or another miolecule, to produce free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. These reactive chemical species can reach DNA by diffusion and the bimolecular reaction damages the DNA. This process is known as oxidative stress.
Unlike direct DNA damage, which occurs in areas directly exposed to UV-B light, free radicals can travel through the body and affect other areas – possibly even inner organs.
Melanocytes, which contain a substance called melanin, that darkens the skin to protect it from the ultraviolet rays of the sun, are more vulnerable than normal skin cells because they are unable to repair direct or indirect DNA damage from UVA radiation. They mutate more frequently.
The traveling nature of the indirect DNA damage is observed in malignant melanoma that can occur in places that have not been directly exposed to the sun in contrast to basal-cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which appear only on locations on the body that have been exposed.
Antioxidants are touted to minimize oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals. The anti-oxidants act to sheathe the knife, binding with the unstable electron and stopping it from attacking collagen and elastin strands and other cells of the skin's architecture.
Antioxidants in beauty products: pros and cons.
Some well-known antioxidants being used in skin care products are vitamins C and E, coenzyme Q10, idebenone, zinc, copper and beta carotene. Skincare companies are harnessing these, along with the antioxidants from a range of botanicals such as green tea, pomegranates, coffee berries, grape seeds, olives, mushrooms and more.
Are antioxidatns in skin care products effective?
Lets examine the three hurdles to get antioxidants to work in skin care:
1) ways to keep anti-oxidants steady in product options; 2) how well anti-oxidants are in reality taken in into the skin; 3) and what concentrations are needed to make them reliable while still being non-irritating.
Right here's the most up to date on those problems:
Stability: Some skin care companies are resolving the issue of quick antioxidant breakdown, specifically upon exposure to light, by packing creams and serums in dark brown, blue or opaque bottles and in metal tubes. Other companies are including powdered vitamin C in a different bundle; you blend it into the moisturizer at the time of use. A plant element called ferulic acid is a dependable stabilizer, based upon new clinical research.
Absorption: Antioxidants that are taken by mouth either in food or supplements are circulated through the body and taken in into cells. When it pertains to using them to the skin, the problem has been that they would simply sit on top of it, where they would quickly be cleaned or abraded rather of being absorbed into the skin cells where their action could be valuable.
Concentration: "Theoretically, the concept behind antioxidants is great," …"they are being used really thoroughly and they are not dangerous, but it's uncertain yet how genuinely helpful they are". Lots of researches and evaluations have actually appeared in clinical journals confirming the capability of anti-oxidants to be absorbed into skin cells.
However some products "just have a sprinkle," in other words, levels unlikely to be trusted. Yet concentrations that are too high run the risk of provoking skin inflammation. There is an optimal concentration level for each antioxidant the level has to be balanced with absorption and stability.
Snail secretions have actually been proven scientifically and by clinical evidence to be effective topical essential antioxidants, and to regenerate damaged skin. Major studies published by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and by The International Atomic Energy Agency show independent proof of efficacy. The later in relationship to their benefits in the treatment of acute radio-dermatitis caused by ionizing radiation used for radiotherapy, specially for breast and neck cancer.
The innovation to enable snail secretions in skin care products to penetrate to the basal layer of the epidermis at the junction with the dermis where they activate the stem cells of the skin, and within the hair follicles, has made them available to power the very best natural skin care products.